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PalDat - Palynological Database

an online publication on recent pollen

Betula pendula

Taxonomy: Angiospermae, Fagales, Betulaceae, Betula

Published: 2016-03-25

Pollen Description

Shape, Size and Aperture

pollen unit: monad,  dispersal unit and peculiarities: monad,  size (pollen unit): small (10-25 µm),  pollen class: porate,  polarity: isopolar,  shape: spheroidal,  outline in polar view: circular,  shape (dry pollen): irregular,  outline in polar view (dry pollen): irregular,  infoldings (dry pollen): irregularly infolded, interapertural area sunken,  aperture number: 3,  aperture type: porus,  aperture condition: porate, triporate,  aperture peculiarities: annulus, operculum, oncus

Ornamentation and Structure

LMornamentation LM: psilate,  nexine: -,  sexine: -,  SEMornamentation SEM: rugulate, microechinate,  TEMtectum: eutectate,  infratectum: columellate,  foot layer: continuous,  endexine: absent,  intine: monolayered,  wall peculiarities: -

Miscellaneous

pollen coatings: absent,  reserves in cytoplasm: starch,  cell number: 2-celled,  Ubisch bodies: present

Annotations

tectum very mighty

Author(s) of diagnosis: Halbritter, Heidemarie; Diethart, Bernadette

Pictures

flower(s)

1. flower(s)

flower(s)

2. flower(s)

flower(s)

3. flower(s)

pollen grain with generative cell

4. pollen grain with generative cell

upper focus

5. upper focus

optical section

6. optical section

lower focus

7. lower focus

polar view

8. polar view

equatorial view

9. equatorial view

aperture

10. aperture

exine surface

11. exine surface

dry pollen grains

12. dry pollen grains

dry pollen grain in polar view

13. dry pollen grain in polar view

dry pollen grain in equatorial view

14. dry pollen grain in equatorial view

anther wall with Ubisch bodies

15. anther wall with Ubisch bodies

pollen grain in cross section

16. pollen grain in cross section

apertural area of pollen wall

17. apertural area of pollen wall

pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

18. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

interapertural area of pollen wall

19. interapertural area of pollen wall

Picture legend

  1. flower(s), photographer: Diethart, B.
  2. flower(s), photographer: Diethart, B.
  3. flower(s), photographer: Diethart, B.
  4. pollen grain with generative cell - fresh, rehydrated (water), aceto-carmine, photographer: Diethart, B.
  5. upper focus - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Diethart, B.
  6. optical section - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Diethart, B.
  7. lower focus - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Diethart, B.
  8. polar view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  9. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  10. aperture - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  11. exine surface - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  12. dry pollen grains - dry, sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  13. dry pollen grain in polar view - dry, sputter coated with gold, photographer: Diethart, B.
  14. dry pollen grain in equatorial view - dry, sputter coated with gold, photographer: Diethart, B.
  15. anther wall with Ubisch bodies - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Diethart, B.
  16. pollen grain in cross section - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Diethart, B.
  17. apertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Diethart, B.
  18. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Diethart, B.
  19. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, lipid-test, photographer: Diethart, B.

Literature

  • Blackmore S, Steinmann JAJ, Hoen PP, Punt W (2003) Betulaceae and Corylaceae. In: The Northwest European Pollen Flora 65. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 123: 71-98
  • FISCHER MA, ADLER W, OSWALD K (2005) Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol : 1180
  • Halbritter, H (1998) Preparing living pollen material for scanning electron microscopy using 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) and criticalpoint drying. Biotechnic Histochem 73: 137–143

Copyright and Citation

Cite this publication as:

Halbritter H., Diethart B. 2016. Betula pendula. In: PalDat - A palynological database. https://www.paldat.org/pub/Betula_pendula/300732;jsessionid=B3500FD9F2025A420549D239B065FFCB; accessed 2018-11-17

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