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PalDat - Palynological Database

an online publication on recent pollen

Viola arvensis

Taxonomy: Angiospermae, Malpighiales, Violaceae, Viola

Published: 2020-12-02

Pollen Description

Shape, Size and Aperture

pollen unit: monad,  dispersal unit and peculiarities: monad,  size (pollen unit): large (51-100 µm),  size of hydrated pollen (LM): 51-100 µm,  shortest polar axis in equatorial view (LM): 51-100 µm,  longest polar axis in equatorial view (LM): 51-100 µm,  shortest diameter in equatorial or polar view (LM): 51-100 µm,  longest diameter in equatorial or polar view (LM): 51-100 µm,  pollen class: colporate,  polarity: isopolar,  P/E-ratio: oblate,  shape: -,  outline in polar view: polygonal,  dominant orientation (LM): oblique,  P/E-ratio (dry pollen): prolate,  shape (dry pollen): -,  outline in polar view (dry pollen): polygonal,  infoldings (dry pollen): no suitable term,  aperture number: 5,  aperture type: colporus,  aperture condition: colporate, stephanocolporate,  aperture peculiarities: -

Ornamentation and Structure

LMornamentation LM: scabrate, verrucate, gemmate,  nexine: -,  sexine: -,  SEMornamentation SEM: microreticulate,  suprasculpture SEM: -,  TEMtectum: -,  infratectum: -,  foot layer: -,  endexine: -,  intine: -,  wall peculiarities: -,  supratectal element: -

Miscellaneous

pollen coatings: -,  reserves in cytoplasm: -,  cell number: -,  Ubisch bodies: -

Annotations: pollen often 4 colporate

Author(s) of diagnosis: Halbritter, Heidemarie; Auer, Waltraud

Pictures

flower(s)

1. flower(s)

hydrated pollen

2. hydrated pollen

hydrated pollen

3. hydrated pollen

hydrated pollen

4. hydrated pollen

polar view

5. polar view

equatorial view

6. equatorial view

aperture

7. aperture

exine surface

8. exine surface

polar area

9. polar area

dry pollen grains

10. dry pollen grains

Picture legend

  1. flower(s), photographer: Halbritter, H.
  2. hydrated pollen - fresh, glycerine, unstained, photographer: Auer, W.
  3. hydrated pollen - fresh, glycerine, ruthenium red, photographer: Auer, W.
  4. hydrated pollen - fresh, glycerine, ruthenium red, photographer: Auer, W.
  5. polar view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  6. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  7. aperture - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  8. exine surface - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  9. polar area - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.
  10. dry pollen grains - dry, sputter coated with gold, photographer: Halbritter, H.

Literature

  • Halbritter, H (1998) Preparing living pollen material for scanning electron microscopy using 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) and criticalpoint drying. Biotechnic Histochem 73: 137–143

Copyright and Citation

Cite this publication as:

Halbritter H., Auer W. 2020. Viola arvensis. In: PalDat - A palynological database. https://www.paldat.org/pub/Viola_arvensis/304227;jsessionid=F2A7970E46812DB027C218160E4D9920; accessed 2020-12-05

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