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PalDat - Palynological Database

an online publication on recent pollen

Betonica officinalis

Taxonomy: Angiospermae, Lamiales, Lamiaceae, Betonica

Published: 2016-03-01

Pollen Description

Shape, Size and Aperture

pollen unit: monad,  dispersal unit and peculiarities: monad,  size (pollen unit): medium-sized (26-50 µm),  pollen class: colpate,  polarity: isopolar,  shape: spheroidal,  outline in polar view: circular,  shape (dry pollen): prolate,  outline in polar view (dry pollen): lobate,  infoldings (dry pollen): aperture(s) sunken,  aperture number: 3,  aperture type: colpus,  aperture condition: colpate, tricolpate,  aperture peculiarities: aperture membrane smooth

Ornamentation and Structure

LMornamentation LM: psilate,  nexine: -,  sexine: -,  SEMornamentation SEM: perforate,  TEMtectum: eutectate,  infratectum: columellate,  foot layer: continuous,  endexine: compact-discontinuous,  intine: monolayered,  wall peculiarities: -

Miscellaneous

pollen coatings: pollenkitt,  reserves in cytoplasm: lipids,  cell number: 2-celled,  Ubisch bodies: absent

Annotations

ornamentation perforate to microreticulate; thin endexine

Author(s) of diagnosis: Halbritter, Heidemarie; Ulrich, Silvia

Pictures

habitus

1. habitus

flower(s)

2. flower(s)

pollen grain with generative cell and vegetative nucleus

3. pollen grain with generative cell and vegetative nucleus

upper focus

4. upper focus

optical section

5. optical section

lower focus

6. lower focus

polar view

7. polar view

equatorial view

8. equatorial view

polar view

9. polar view

equatorial view

10. equatorial view

equatorial view

11. equatorial view

aperture

12. aperture

detail of aperture

13. detail of aperture

exine surface

14. exine surface

detail of polar area

15. detail of polar area

dry pollen grains

16. dry pollen grains

pollen grains in cross section

17. pollen grains in cross section

interapertural area of pollen wall

18. interapertural area of pollen wall

apertural area of pollen wall

19. apertural area of pollen wall

pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

20. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

21. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

22. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

interapertural area of pollen wall

23. interapertural area of pollen wall

interapertural area of pollen wall

24. interapertural area of pollen wall

interapertural area of pollen wall

25. interapertural area of pollen wall

vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell; stacked endoplasmatic reticulum (right)

26. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell; stacked endoplasmatic reticulum (right)

vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell (right)

27. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell (right)

stacked endoplasmatic reticulum

28. stacked endoplasmatic reticulum

crystals, in cells of the connectiv

29. crystals, in cells of the connectiv

Picture legend

  1. habitus, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  2. flower(s), photographer: Halbritter, H.
  3. pollen grain with generative cell and vegetative nucleus - fresh, rehydrated (water), aceto-carmine, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  4. upper focus - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  5. optical section - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  6. lower focus - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  7. polar view - fresh, rehydrated (water), unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  8. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water), unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  9. polar view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  10. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  11. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  12. aperture - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  13. detail of aperture - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  14. exine surface - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  15. detail of polar area - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  16. dry pollen grains - dry, sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  17. pollen grains in cross section - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  18. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  19. apertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  20. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  21. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  22. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, potassium permanganate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  23. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  24. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  25. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, potassium permanganate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  26. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell; stacked endoplasmatic reticulum (right) - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  27. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell (right) - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  28. stacked endoplasmatic reticulum - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  29. crystals, in cells of the connectiv - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.

Literature

  • Andrew R (1984) A practical pollen guide to the British flora. Quaternary Res Bull Technical Guide I: 1-139
  • Armbruster L, Oenike C (1929) Die Pollenformen als Mittel zur Honigherkunftbestimmung. Bücherei für Bienenkunde. Karl Wachholtz Verlag, Neumünster in Holstein X: 1-116, 23 pl
  • Cantino PD, Sanders RW (1986) Subfamilial classification of Labiatae. Systematic Botany 11: 163-185
  • El GA, Watson L (1968) Labiatae: taxonomy and susceptibility to Puccinia menthae Pers. New Phytol 67: 739-743
  • Risch C (1940) Die Pollenkörner der in Deutschland vorkommenden Labiaten. Verhandl Bot Vereins f Brandenburg 80: 21-36
  • Risch C (1956) Die Pollenkörner der Labiaten. Willdenowia 1: 617-641
  • Halbritter, H (1998) Preparing living pollen material for scanning electron microscopy using 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) and criticalpoint drying. Biotechnic Histochem 73: 137–143
  • FISCHER MA, ADLER W, OSWALD K (2005) Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol : 1180

Copyright and Citation

Cite this publication as:

Halbritter H., Ulrich S. 2016. Betonica officinalis. In: PalDat - A palynological database. https://www.paldat.org/pub/Betonica_officinalis/300519;jsessionid=F6F1D9845ABE214D502D3ECD8F563D5B; accessed 2018-11-13

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