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PalDat - Palynological Database

an online publication on recent pollen

Betonica officinalis

Taxonomy: Angiospermae, Lamiales, Lamiaceae, Betonica

Links: http://flora.nhm-wien.ac.at/seiten-arten/betonica-officinalis-2.htm

Annotations: Betonica officinalis L. is a synonym of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. according to the plant list.

Published: 2020-12-10

Pollen Description

Shape, Size and Aperture

pollen unit: monad,  dispersal unit and peculiarities: monad,  size (pollen unit): medium-sized (26-50 µm),  size of hydrated pollen (LM): 26-30 µm, 31-35 µm,  shortest polar axis in equatorial view (LM): 26-30 µm,  longest polar axis in equatorial view (LM): 31-35 µm,  shortest diameter in equatorial or polar view (LM): 26-30 µm,  longest diameter in equatorial or polar view (LM): 31-35 µm,  pollen class: colpate,  polarity: isopolar,  P/E-ratio: -,  shape: spheroidal,  outline in polar view: circular,  dominant orientation (LM): oblique,  P/E-ratio (dry pollen): prolate,  shape (dry pollen): -,  outline in polar view (dry pollen): lobate,  infoldings (dry pollen): aperture(s) sunken,  aperture number: 3,  aperture type: colpus,  aperture condition: colpate, tricolpate,  aperture peculiarities: aperture membrane psilate

Ornamentation and Structure

LMornamentation LM: scabrate, verrucate, gemmate,  nexine: -,  sexine: -,  SEMornamentation SEM: perforate,  suprasculpture SEM: -,  TEMtectum: eutectate,  infratectum: columellate,  foot layer: continuous,  endexine: compact-discontinuous,  intine: monolayered,  wall peculiarities: -,  supratectal element: -

Miscellaneous

pollen coatings: pollenkitt,  reserves in cytoplasm: lipids,  cell number: 2-celled,  Ubisch bodies: absent

Annotations: ornamentation perforate to microreticulate; thin endexine

Author(s) of diagnosis: Halbritter, Heidemarie; Ulrich, Silvia; Heigl, Helmut

Pictures

habitus

1. habitus

flower(s)

2. flower(s)

pollen grain with generative cell and vegetative nucleus

3. pollen grain with generative cell and vegetative nucleus

upper focus

4. upper focus

optical section

5. optical section

lower focus

6. lower focus

polar view

7. polar view

equatorial view

8. equatorial view

hydrated pollen

9. hydrated pollen

hydrated pollen

10. hydrated pollen

hydrated pollen

11. hydrated pollen

polar view

12. polar view

equatorial view

13. equatorial view

equatorial view

14. equatorial view

aperture

15. aperture

detail of aperture

16. detail of aperture

exine surface

17. exine surface

detail of polar area

18. detail of polar area

dry pollen grains

19. dry pollen grains

pollen grains in cross section

20. pollen grains in cross section

interapertural area of pollen wall

21. interapertural area of pollen wall

apertural area of pollen wall

22. apertural area of pollen wall

pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

23. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

24. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

25. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area

interapertural area of pollen wall

26. interapertural area of pollen wall

interapertural area of pollen wall

27. interapertural area of pollen wall

interapertural area of pollen wall

28. interapertural area of pollen wall

vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell; stacked endoplasmatic reticulum (right)

29. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell; stacked endoplasmatic reticulum (right)

vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell (right)

30. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell (right)

stacked endoplasmatic reticulum

31. stacked endoplasmatic reticulum

crystals, in cells of the connectiv

32. crystals, in cells of the connectiv

Picture legend

  1. habitus, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  2. flower(s), photographer: Halbritter, H.
  3. pollen grain with generative cell and vegetative nucleus - fresh, rehydrated (water), aceto-carmine, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  4. upper focus - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  5. optical section - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  6. lower focus - fresh, acetolyzed, unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  7. polar view - fresh, rehydrated (water), unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  8. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water), unstained, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  9. hydrated pollen - fresh, glycerine, unstained, photographer: Heigl, H.
  10. hydrated pollen - fresh, glycerine, ruthenium red, photographer: Heigl, H.
  11. hydrated pollen - fresh, glycerine, ruthenium red, photographer: Heigl, H.
  12. polar view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  13. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  14. equatorial view - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  15. aperture - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  16. detail of aperture - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  17. exine surface - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  18. detail of polar area - fresh, rehydrated (water) & critical point dried & sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  19. dry pollen grains - dry, sputter coated with gold, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  20. pollen grains in cross section - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  21. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  22. apertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  23. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  24. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  25. pollen wall at transition of aperture and interapertural area - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, potassium permanganate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  26. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  27. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, uranyl acetate & lead citrate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  28. interapertural area of pollen wall - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, potassium permanganate, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  29. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell; stacked endoplasmatic reticulum (right) - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  30. vegetative nucleus (left) and generative cell (right) - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  31. stacked endoplasmatic reticulum - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.
  32. crystals, in cells of the connectiv - fresh, glutaraldehyde & osmium & potassium ferrocyanide, modified Thiéry-test, photographer: Ulrich, S.

Literature

  • Andrew R (1984) A practical pollen guide to the British flora. Quaternary Res Bull Technical Guide I: 1-139
  • Armbruster L, Oenike C (1929) Die Pollenformen als Mittel zur Honigherkunftbestimmung. Bücherei für Bienenkunde. Karl Wachholtz Verlag, Neumünster in Holstein X: 1-116, 23 pl
  • Cantino PD, Sanders RW (1986) Subfamilial classification of Labiatae. Systematic Botany 11: 163-185
  • El GA, Watson L (1968) Labiatae: taxonomy and susceptibility to Puccinia menthae Pers. New Phytol 67: 739-743
  • Risch C (1940) Die Pollenkörner der in Deutschland vorkommenden Labiaten. Verhandl Bot Vereins f Brandenburg 80: 21-36
  • Risch C (1956) Die Pollenkörner der Labiaten. Willdenowia 1: 617-641
  • Halbritter, H (1998) Preparing living pollen material for scanning electron microscopy using 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) and criticalpoint drying. Biotechnic Histochem 73: 137–143
  • FISCHER MA, ADLER W, OSWALD K (2005) Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol : 1180

Copyright and Citation

Cite this publication as:

Halbritter H., Ulrich S., Heigl H. 2020. Betonica officinalis. In: PalDat - A palynological database. https://www.paldat.org/pub/Betonica_officinalis/304436;jsessionid=B76C5CDEDB98998F3268D857F0650B72; accessed 2021-09-23

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